Impact of Watching Porn

One of the major impacts of the Internet is the widespread availability of porn. It’s incredibly easy to stream it for free, yet according to a Harvard scientist it may be doing damage to your health.

Kevin Majeres is a psychiatrist specializing in cognitive-behavioral therapy and is a faculty member of Harvard Medical School.

Writing in a blog post, Majeres breaks down how the brain works and what happens during repeated exposure to pornography.

He explains it in such logical terms that you’ll probably think again before succumbing to the temptation of watching porn.

Majeres begins with the mating patterns discovered in rats:

“Scientists have discovered that if you place a male rat in a cage with a receptive female, they will mate; but once done, the male rat will not mate more times, even if the female is still receptive. He loses all sexual interest. But if, right after he finishes with the first female, you put in a second receptive female, he will immediately mate again; and again a third, and so on, until he nearly dies. This effect has been found in every animal studied. This is called the Coolidge effect.”

Pornography’s power comes from the way it tricks the man’s lower brain. One of the drawbacks of this region is that it can’t tell the difference between an image and reality. The same processes are kicked off.

The problem with pornography is that it offers men an unlimited number of supposedly willing females. Every time the man sees a new potential partner, even if on a computer screen, it gets his sex driving going again.

Here’s what Majeres has to say about the role of dopamine in this process:

“Dopamine is the drug of desire – when you see something desirable, your brain pours out dopamine, saying “Go for it! Do whatever it takes!” Dopamine fixes your attention on that desirable object, giving you your power of concentration…

“So when someone clicks and sees a new pornographic image, his lower brain thinks this is the real thing, this is the lady he must win over with all his might, and so he gets an enormous dopamine flood in his upper brain, causing a wild amount of electrical energy.

“This first exposure to a new female who is a potential mate wasn’t something that happened a lot to our ancestors; maybe only once in their lives; so the brain thinks this is a big deal. It doesn’t know that now the game has completely changed: it doesn’t understand that these are virtual females only; so with each new one it causes another flood of dopamine, time after time, click after click, as long as he continues. It’s a dopamine binge.”

Majeres continues:

“This is why pornography causes a vicious circle. When someone views pornography, he gets overstimulated by dopamine; so his brain destroys some dopamine receptors. This makes him feel depleted, so he goes back to pornography, but, having fewer dopamine receptors, this time it requires more to get the same dopamine thrill; but this causes his brain to destroy more receptors; so he feels an even greater need for pornography to stimulate him.

“So as guys keep gaming the dopamine system, they start to find that they have to use pornography for longer and longer periods to have the same effect, and they have to visit more and more sites.”

But even more porn sites eventually don’t cut it. What then?

“You have to stimulate another emotion: fear or disgust or shock or surprise. For porn use, you need to start moving to kinkier things, things that make you afraid or make you feel a bit sick; and so you start experimenting with various perversions.”

It’s worth reading Majeres’ article in full. The science may yet be unclear on the physical side effects of porn, but he makes a strong case, at the very least, that pornography is 1) highly addictive 2) harmful to relationships.

Regardless of what you think of porn from the moral perspective, the fact that it’s so addictive should provide cause for rethinking the role of porn in your life.

Source: Ideapod Blog (4th April 2017)

What you should know about Chinese schools in Malaysia

Schools considered as ‘Chinese schools’ in Malaysia share a common history but have different features. — Picture by KE Ooi

Schools considered as ‘Chinese schools’ in Malaysia share a common history but have different features. — Picture by KE OoiKUALA LUMPUR, July 3 — Not all Chinese schools in Malaysia use Mandarin as the medium of instruction. Surprised? Why are they called Chinese schools then?

That is because the term “Chinese schools” has been used indiscriminately to group together disparate types of schools with a common historical background under a very wide umbrella.

In reality, there are two broad categories for Chinese schools here: those that are private and those that are government-aided. Some of their key distinctions revolve around funding, medium of instruction and syllabus used.

According to the Education Ministry, the self-funded Chinese independent high schools are private schools while those called national-type Chinese primary schools (SJKC) or national-type secondary schools (SMJK) are public schools that receive either full or partial financial assistance from the government.

Chinese independent high schools

Chinese independent high schools may sound like an odd moniker but it can be traced back to the history of local Chinese-medium schools, which United Chinese School Committees’ Association of Malaysia (Dong Zong) chairman Datuk Vincent Lau told Malay Mail Online were first established by the migrants originating from China to provide education for their children.

Surviving a push for English-medium schools during British colonial rule as they insisted on using their mother tongue for lessons, the Chinese-medium secondary schools that refused to switch to using Bahasa Malaysia in exchange for government funding became known as Chinese independent high schools.

These schools do not receive funding from the federal government, except for one-off contributions.

However, Dong Zong confirmed that state governments such as Penang, Sabah, Sarawak and Selangor do provide financial assistance. The respective school boards otherwise continue to rely on school fees and donations from the community for all expenses including teachers’ salaries and infrastructure.

SJKC and SMJK: Government-aided schools

There are also primary schools where Mandarin is used to teach all subjects. These existed before Malaysia was formed in 1963 and are now known as SJKC, where the vernacular language is allowed to continue to be used as the medium of instruction as an alternative to the Bahasa Malaysia-medium national primary schools (SK).

SK schools are located on public land and accorded the status of “government schools” which the ministry fully maintains and funds.

SJKC schools adopt the same national syllabus used by SK schools and offer the same school-leaving UPSR examination. But because they are built on private donated land, they are given the status of “government-aided schools” and receive less government funding compared to SK schools.

While the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025 states that the ministry allocates teachers for both government and government-aided schools and fully pays for their salaries, funding in other aspects for these two subsets of public schools differ slightly.

Both receive government support for operational expenditure in the form of grants-in-aid based on the same criteria of individual school’s needs, but there is a limit on funding for government-aided schools’ utilities bill.

And while the government fully funds the development costs for SK schools, SJKC schools may get 80 per cent funding, sometimes more, for their renovation and construction.

Similarly for SMJK schools which were once Chinese-medium schools that opted to conform by using BM and the national syllabus in return for government aid, the amount of government funding received also depends on ownership of school land.

While SMJK schools have told Putrajaya that they should be granted full financial assistance regardless of their land status, they are currently only considered fully-aided schools if the school boards surrendered the land titles to the government. Otherwise they only receive partial financial assistance with teachers’ salaries and per capita grants paid by the government.

Syllabus and examinations

SMJK students follow the same syllabus and sit for the same examinations as their counterparts in national secondary schools (SMK) during Form Three (PT3), Form Five (SPM) and Form Six (STPM).

But SJMK schools also allocate more time for Mandarin classes with five periods per week to instil deeper awareness of the language and its roots among their majority ethnic Chinese students. In comparison, SMK schools offer only three periods of Mandarin classes a week.

At Chinese independent schools, the syllabus and textbooks are prepared by Dong Zong, which also prepares and conducts the Unified Examination Certificate (UEC) for their students.

While students typically sit for the UEC examination during their Junior Three and Senior Three years — or the equivalent of Form Three and Form Six in national schools — there are also some Chinese independent schools which offer the SPM to their students too though Lau said it is not compulsory for Chinese independent schools.

Dong Zong’s records showed that 8,574 students at the Chinese independent schools registered as SPM candidates last year.

Lau said some Chinese independent school students may not take the UEC Senior Three exam after sitting for their SPM as a Senior Two student, opting instead for other pre-university courses.

The STPM exam is not offered however, as the UEC Senior Three exam is its equivalent and is widely-accepted abroad and in local private institutions as a pre-university qualifier.

The UEC examination for Junior Three is in Chinese for most schools, but some schools are also given examination papers in both Mandarin and English. UEC Senior Three candidates are given examination papers set in both Mandarin and English.

While not part of Dong Zong’s tally of Chinese independent schools, Kuantan’s SM Chong Hwa has the unique arrangement of being a private secondary school where students can sit for both the UEC examination and examinations under the national syllabus.

Dong Zong chairman Datuk Vincent Lau said the shrinking fresh intake of students is also tied to lack of space and the non-approval for new Chinese independent schools to cope with demand. — Picture by Choo Choy May

Dong Zong chairman Datuk Vincent Lau said the shrinking fresh intake of students is also tied to lack of space and the non-approval for new Chinese independent schools to cope with demand. — Picture by Choo Choy MayChinese education in numbers

There are currently 81 SMJK, including three branch schools. The branch campus of Kajang’s SMJK Yu Hua, which received government approval last December after the 3,500-capacity main campus had to turn down students, will be the latest addition when completed.

Based on Dong Zong’s data sourced from the Education Ministry, the number of SJKC schools has been shrinking while BM-medium national primary schools have been growing.

As at last December, the number of SJKC schools numbered 1,298 compared to 1,346 in 1970. In contrast, SK schools boasted 5,877 in 2016 compared to 4,277 in 1970.

The dwindling trend for vernacular schools is also reflected in the decreasing number of Tamil-language primary schools (SJKT) that recorded just 524 last year compared to 657 in 1970.

As for secondary schools, there are currently 61 Chinese independent schools, inclusive of Johor’s Foon Yew High School and its branch which both collectively have over 10,000 students. Foon Yew is set to open yet another branch in 2021.

But Lau of Dong Zong said demand remains high for enrolment in Chinese independent schools, especially in cities, where some of these schools have around 3,000 students and cannot take in more due to limited land, facilities and classrooms.

“The other thing is we cannot get the permission to build more Chinese independent schools, the government does not allow, they limit you to 60. We applied but they don’t give permission,” he said, comparing this with the boom in the number of international schools approved by the government.

As such, some Chinese independent schools have resorted to demolishing some of their buildings to rebuild additional storeys to cater to demand.

How big a pie?

While the overall number of students at Chinese independent schools continued its uninterrupted upward trend of 15 years and hit a historic peak this year with 85,304 students, it accounts for only four per cent of the total recorded number of secondary school students, which is 2,099,603 as of January 2017.

SMJK schools account for over 108,000 students, and even when combined with Chinese independent schools amount to less than 10 per cent.

The number of new intakes at Chinese independent schools has however been going down in the past four years.

After a record high at 17,620 in 2013, this year saw only 14,481 enrolments, which Lau attributed to a cocktail of factors: the rural to urban migration, the subsequent imbalance between overcrowded urban schools and under-enrolled rural schools, and lower birth rates especially among the ethnic Chinese community.

According to an Education Ministry parliamentary reply in the March-April session, the number of primary school students as of January 2017 is 2,674,327. A separate reply in the same session shows that the bulk of the student are enrolled in SK schools at 2,065,279, while almost one-fifth are in SJKC schools at 527,453 and SJKT schools account for 81,483.

Based on the Department of Statistics Malaysia’s data of live births in the 2000-2015 period, the annual number of babies born in some of the preceding seven years before primary school enrolment from 2000 to 2017 are also among the lowest of the entire 15-year period.

The SK, SJKC and SJKT overall student numbers have generally been on a downward trend during the 2010-2017 period (except for a rebound for SK schools in the past two years).

Beyond the flocking of locals to international schools since the federal government removed limits in 2012 on intake of Malaysians, the Department Statistics Malaysia’s 2000-2015 data of live births may also give a hint on the explanation for the student numbers in national and national-type primary schools.

Malaysians typically enter primary schools at age seven, so students freshly enrolled in the 2010-2017 batch would generally be those born during the 2003-2010 period. The annual number of babies born during the latter period are among the lowest in the 2000-2015 period — 481,800 in 2004, 474,473 in 2005, 472,698 in 2006, 479,647 in 2007.

Future goals

Dong Zong has long been pushing Putrajaya to recognise the UEC for entry into the civil service and local public universities, with Lau saying that further discussions are required to pursue this recognition.

The government had in parliamentary replies said it is maintaining the status quo by letting the 60 Chinese independent schools here continue their operations as provided for under the Education Act 1996.

The replies indicate that the government’s steadfast refusal to recognise the UEC is because of the differing national syllabus standards and alleged contradiction with the National Education Policy which envisions a uniform syllabus and examinations delivered in BM.

The Higher Education Ministry had in a March 2016 parliamentary reply highlighted that it will deny public university entry to UEC graduates owing to several reasons including entry requirements of an SPM pass with credits in the BM subject; UEC’s BM levels not being on par with SPM standards; as well as alleged inadequate coverage of national history in the UEC syllabus.

Lau said the BM levels may differ in the two examinations, adding that Dong Zong is agreeable to having UEC students sit for the Bahasa Malaysia subject under SPM as a single subject and would want to be able to waive sitting for the entire examination.

“Maybe they have misconception about what we study, they are thinking we are studying Chinese history textbook from China or Taiwan, which is not true,” he said.

He claimed that Chinese independent schools cover a wider scope in history lessons on Europe, China and South-east Asia compared to the syllabus taught in national schools, but that they also cover Malaysian history.

The UEC is currently recognised by the Sarawak state government for entry into the state’s civil service and is recognised by local private universities such as the Selangor-owned Unisel, but is not accepted by the public universities such as Universiti Malaysia Sarawak which is under the federal government, Lau said. The Penang state government also accepts UEC graduates at its subsidiary companies.

As for Chinese primary schools, Lau said the federal government should adopt a systematic policy by either relocating under-enrolled schools or build new schools in high-demand areas such as urban areas and new townships that have predominantly ethnic Chinese population.

“Sometimes this becomes political, when it’s closer to election, the place there requests a school, the government [says] OK and they will build the school,” he said of the current ad-hoc approach.

Chinese education groups had in two memoranda in 2011 and 2012 to the prime minister said an additional 45 SJKC schools in six states needs to be built. The government has yet to approve the construction of these schools as of a December 2016 statement by Dong Zong.

Source: The Malay Mail Online (3rd July 2017)

Kidney stones

Just like how stones are formed from mineral deposits, our bodies too could form stones due to the presence of excess minerals in our body. That’s why drinking enough water is important to flush out this excess minerals. Here’s an informative video by Arash Shadman on the formation of kidney stones, its cure and prevention.

Source: TED-Ed

Home for Raya 

Image result for Ipoh garden east

Home (as in your hometown) is a place to be on Hari Raya. Well at least temporarily. It is a form escapism from the hustle bustle of the worktown (let’s call it so) where a large portion of your life is spent. Home reminds you of who you were and that may or may not be something you want to revisit. But memories aside, being home never fails to eject ourselves of our accumulated burden, that have grown out of the increasing expectation and demanding world we are living in today. A good vacation may help clear the mind but none dumps the burden off the shoulder like being home. But make no mistake, home is no mere dumping site. It is a place filled with love that has the power to clear off any emotional debt. But as with anything in this world (except for data plans perhaps) , none can be subscribed unlimitedly. As the debt is cleared we yearned to be back to where we left. Because it is only when we are away from home that we could be functional.

But as for now, enjoy being home.

Selamat Hari Raya, maaf zahir batin from us at Mdlistic.

Is religion evil?

 Is religion evil? Now that’s a tough question to swallow. To Professor Richard Dawkins, a famous atheist, religion has a great tendency to be evil but is not downright so. It tires me personally to engage with this question time and again because in the end I come to the same conclusion, that many of the world’s major religions that I know of do not condone extremism and are not evil. It becomes evil and extreme when certain followers misinterprets the religious text (mostly intentionally) for their own political and financial gain. And when such group gain publicity and influence they gain support from new followers who are either blinded by faith, poor or misguided. Some may argue that there are verses in the Quran that preaches violence. But such ‘violence’ mentioned are within certain context that are often disregarded and not discussed. For instance Islam does not teach its followers to go against people of other faith for no reason. The only time the religion demands its followers to act is when the religion is under serious threat. But even so, that does not translate to violence. If a dispute can be settled peacefully, Islam is more than willing to accept. But of course proving this point is though thanks to all the misinterpretation and Islamophobia. The only way we could view religion in its purity is to learn its fundamental principle and certainly not from merely seeing how it is practiced by the masses. There are but a few true followers of Islam who embodies the religion in their daily practice by its truest sense. This is true not only of Islam but of every religion.

Bukan mudah dapat PhD

Oleh: Dr. Mohamed Azam Mohamed Adil

Tulisan Adam Kadir berjudul Pemakaian ‘Dr.’ Perlu Pengiktirafan Rasmi dalam Utusan Malaysia (8 April 2008) ada kebenarannya. Dalam usaha Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi yang meletakkan sasaran 100 ribu pemegang PhD menjelang 2015, maka ramai yang secara tiba-tiba menggunakan gelaran tersebut.

PhD atau Doktor Falsafah mengikut kamus Oxford Advanced Learner‘s Dictionary ialah ijazah tertinggi yang dianugerah oleh sesebuah universiti. Penganugerahan tersebut dibuat setelah calon berjaya membuat penyelidikan yang mencapai standard PhD dalam sesuatu bidang.

Pendek kata, ijazah PhD bukanlah suatu ijazah yang mudah diperoleh. Ia melalui satu proses pembelajaran dan penyelidikan yang tinggi mutunya sesuai dengan status ketinggian ijazah tersebut.

Kebanyakan universiti di Malaysia dan United Kingdom misalnya, tempoh minimum pengajian PhD mengambil masa tiga tahun, dan tempoh maksimum enam tahun sekiranya dibuat secara sepenuh masa. Bagi pengajian separuh masa tempoh yang diberi adalah sehingga lapan tahun bagi sesetengah universiti.

Manakala pengajian PhD secara jarak jauh banyak membawa perdebatan yang bersetuju dan ada yang menentang. Ada yang mendakwa mendapat Ijazah PhD dari sebuah universiti terkemuka di luar negara tetapi malangnya, universiti itu tidak diberi pengiktirafan Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam (JPA).

Ini kerana, peranan JPA adalah untuk menjaga ‘taraf dan mutu’ sesuatu ijazah yang dianugerahkan oleh sesebuah universiti. Maka tidak hairanlah JPA tidak mengiktiraf sesetengah ijazah walaupun di peringkat Sarjana Muda dengan alasan ia tidak mencapai mutu dan standard yang dikehendaki dalam satu-satu bidang berkenaan.

Dalam menyahut cabaran Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi yang mahukan ramai pemegang PhD di kalangan pensyarah, sudah tentulah ramai di kalangan kakitangan akademik ‘terpaksa’ menyambung pengajian mereka ke peringkat PhD. Sebagai seorang pensyarah, penulis berpendapat pensyarah yang tidak memiliki Ijazah PhD ‘belum sempurna keilmuannya’ kerana dengan melalui pengajian di peringkat tersebut, seseorang akan didedahkan method pengajian dan penyelidikan yang cukup tinggi nilai, mutu dan standardnya.

Sesebuah tesis yang dihasilkan dalam masa pengajian tiga hingga empat tahun misalnya, akan membuahkan satu teori atau penemuan baru dalam satu-satu bidang. Malah, kalau ia tidak membuahkan satu teori baru, ia tidak dianggap tesis PhD. Begitu juga, kalau ia tidak membuktikan satu hasil penyelidikan yang tidak ada tolok bandingnya.

Sesebuah tesis PhD akan melalui banyak proses – daripada cadangan (proposal) dan mempertahankan cadangan tersebut (defend proposal) di peringkat universiti yang akan dinilai oleh pakar-pakar dalam bidang tersebut, baik dari segi kandungan dan juga pendekatan methodologi.

Seseorang yang telah melalui pengalaman ini, sudah tentu merasai pahit maung dikritik dan ‘dibelasah’ dalam sesi defend proposal.

Terdapat juga pendekatan upgrading dari M. Phil ke PhD yang diamalkan terutama mereka yang membuat pengajian di United Kingdom. Bagi mereka ini, tempoh setahun hingga setahun setengah merupakan tahun getir kerana tanpa berjaya melalui upgrading ke PhD, seseorang itu dianggap gagal memperolehi ijazah PhD.

Dalam melihat keaslian dan kesahihan penyelidikan yang dibuat, kebanyakan universiti di Malaysia mahupun luar negara mensyaratkan pemeriksaan melalui viva secara oral. Ini bagi memastikan penyelidik tersebut benar-benar ‘mendalami’ hasil kajian yang dibuat dalam tesis PhDnya.

Ia juga bertujuan untuk melihat kesahihan penyelidik tersebut. Maka tohmahan bahawa sesebuah tesis PhD boleh diperolehi melalui upahan akan terjawab dalam proses viva. Ini kerana, kadang-kadang pemeriksa akan bertanya soalan-soalan sampingan yang tiada kaitan dengan kajian tesis PhD tersebut.

Dalam hal ini, penulis banyak melihat kawan-kawan yang sama-sama berjaya memperolehi PhD dan tidak ketinggalan, ramai juga yang gagal. Kalau diambil tempoh pengajian tiga hingga empat tahun untuk tamat pengajian, agak sedikit mereka yang lulus dalam tempoh ini. Ada yang mengambil sehingga 10 tahun untuk tamat pengajian.

Bagi mereka yang gagal, mungkin kerana nasib tidak menyebelahi mereka. Dalam pengamatan penulis, terdapat kawan-kawan yang rajin dan tekun serta berdisiplin semasa pengajian, tetapi nasib tidak menyebelahi mereka di mana penyelia meninggal dunia atau bertukar tempat. Maka pengajian PhD itu terbengkalai akibat keadaan itu kerana tiada pensyarah lain yang boleh menyelia tesis tersebut justeru kerana bukan bidang kepakaran atau kemahiran mereka.

Maka, persoalannya, bagaimana tergamak seseorang insan itu sanggup menggelarkan dirinya seorang ‘Dr.’ seandainya beliau tidak melalui proses ‘kepenatan’ dan ‘kesengsaraan’ mental, emosi dan fizikal dalam menyiapkan penyelidikan PhD tersebut.

Seperti yang dinukilkan oleh Prof. Dr. Kamil Ibrahim dalam bukunya PhD Kecil Tapi Signifikan, UPENA, UiTM (2005), ijazah PhD ialah suatu keperluan akademik yang sangat perlu di universiti seandainya seseorang itu mahu dianggap sebagai seorang scholar.

Beliau menambah, “PhD merupakan suatu proses unik. Ramai yang mencuba untuk mendapatkannya, tetapi ramai yang kecundang. Mereka yang berjaya pula melalui pelbagai halangan. Ada orang mengatakan ia suatu proses yang cukup perit dan meletihkan.”

Tambahan pula, “terlalu sedikit yang dapat menyiapkan pengajian mereka tepat mengikut jadual. Apatah lagi untuk mencari mereka yang tamat kurang dari tiga tahun. Ia boleh dibilang dengan jari.”

Demi menjaga mutu dan standard sesebuah ijazah PhD yang dianugerahkan oleh sesebuah universiti, sudah tentulah tesis itu akan dinilai oleh peers dalam bidang berkenaan terlebih dahulu sebelum dinilai oleh pihak pemeriksa luar.

Bagi Universiti Malaya sebagai contohnya, amalan sekarang ialah pemeriksa luar bagi tesis PhD mestilah seorang profesor yang memiliki PhD dan disyaratkan mesti dari luar negara. Sudah tentulah proses untuk mendapat ijazah PhD bukannya mudah tetapi semakin susah.

Mengambil kira faktor-faktor di atas, amat wajar saranan Adam Kadir supaya pihak JPA memainkan peranan pengiktirafan sesebuah ijazah PhD walaupun ia datang dari Barat. Ia hendaklah melalui proses pengajian PhD sebenar walaupun ia dibuat secara jarak jauh. Bagi mereka yang suka memakai gelaran ‘Dr.’ walaupun gagal kerana terkandas di tengah jalan, pertanyaan ikhlas penulis ialah, apakah mereka ini tidak merasa malu dan dipandang serong oleh kawan dan orang awam.

Sebagai contoh, memang terdapat mereka yang membuat pengajian PhD di luar negara secara jarak jauh dan tiba-tiba meletakkan nama ‘Dr.’ Apakah mereka ini memang melalui pengajian PhD dalam erti kata sebenar?

Terdapat pensyarah yang gagal memperoleh PhD setelah melalui pengajian sepenuh masa dan kemudian berusaha lagi dengan membuatnya secara jarak jauh. Namun ia tidak diiktiraf oleh universiti berkenaan, maka dengan sendirinya dia rela menerima ‘pelucutan’ penggunaan gelaran ‘Dr.’

Maka penulis mencadangkan supaya pengiktirafan penggunaan gelaran ‘Dr.’ hendaklah diperketatkan. Pihak JPA hendaklah diberi peranan dalam memberi pengiktirafan tersebut.

Bagi pensyarah di universiti, pengiktirafan ini boleh diturun kuasa oleh JPA kepada Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi yang kemudian akan memberi pengiktirafan tersebut.

Masalahnya ialah bagi mereka yang bekerja sendiri atau di sektor swasta, gelaran ‘Dr.’ juga mesti dibuat pengiktirafan oleh pihak JPA. Selagi mana pengiktirafan tersebut tidak diperoleh, seseorang individu dilarang sama sekali mengguna gelaran tersebut.

Bagi mereka yang mendapat ijazah PhD dari universiti bagus dan menggunakan gelaran tersebut tanpa pengiktirafan oleh pihak JPA, adalah dicadangkan supaya satu undang-undang mengenai salah laku penggunaan gelaran ‘Dr.’ hendaklah dibuat demi menjaga kemurnian dan kesarjanaan seseorang yang bergelar ‘Dr.’

Sumber: Dr. Mohamed Azam Mohamed Adil

Is ‘mamak’ a derogatory term?

by: Jahabar Sadiq

Image may contain: 3 people, indoor

My friend wondered aloud whether using the term mamak was derogatory. I replied that it wasn’t and the conversation went on for a bit.

But mamak is just a Malaysian term, and its a corruption of the word mama, which means uncle in Tamil. And it is specifically uncle on the maternal side.

Uncles on the paternal side are known as sacha or chacha. And for variety, depending where you are from in Tamil Nadu, mama is also pronounced and spelled mamu. Hence the Penang variant.

So how did it become a put-down or a derogatory term. From what I know, it came about from the old days of Malacca when the Bendahara Sri Maharaja Tun Mutahir or prime minister was seen as a vain pot. He was accused of plotting against the sultan and his entire family was put to death in 1510, a year before Malacca fell to the Portuguese.

And then there’s Dr Mahathir Mohamad, who is of Indian Muslim descent. A fair number of people have called him derogatory names including mamak and mamak kutty. That probably explains the reason why mamak is derogatory for some.

But Dr Mahathir isn’t mamak. His family came from Kerala and they are known as Kakas. Ignorance has resulted in more odium and contempt for the more popular Mamaks rather than the Kakas.

But you want to talk derogatory? Or dirty.

The Indians themselves, and in Malaysia that really means the southern Indians or Tamils, have also described Indian Muslims in less than friendly manner. The term they use is Thulukans, or people of Turkish descent.

There’s a long history there as Islam came by land and sea to India – that sub-continent of princeling states and people divided by language, diet, culture and united by the British (correction, India was united before that so in defence I’ll say, English language).

The Arabs always had relations with India even before Islam but a fair number of Muslims came by land from the northwest and pushed right through to the south. They were of Turkic origins. The seafaring Arabs proselytised among the coastal Indians in the east coast and somewhat in the west coast and their offsprings were just known as Arabs, not Mamak or Kaka.

But among the Indian Muslims, the term Thulukan is friendly and a sign of recognition of brotherhood and family relationships.

What term do Indian Muslims or Mamaks use to put each other down? They call each other ToppiWappa. But it is friendly, not spiteful or derogatory.

Why I’m writing this down? Because I might forget all this one day and also to underline one thing. You can call Mamaks and think it is derogatory but it is a sign of respect. And you know, the Mamaks are there 24 hours to cook delicious fare for you and your family. And there for your cigarettes, condoms and crisps.

So before you think it is bad and not politically correct, just know the Mamak doesn’t quite care. They are a courteous community focussed on family, feasts and finance.

The rest of Malaysia can’t live without them, and know them as the people you go to when in you need food, foreign exchange and friendship.

Get the picture? Oh, and maybe one day I will write about 786.

Source: Facebook Jahabar Sadiq (27th May 2017)