Bukan mudah dapat PhD

Oleh: Dr. Mohamed Azam Mohamed Adil

Tulisan Adam Kadir berjudul Pemakaian ‘Dr.’ Perlu Pengiktirafan Rasmi dalam Utusan Malaysia (8 April 2008) ada kebenarannya. Dalam usaha Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi yang meletakkan sasaran 100 ribu pemegang PhD menjelang 2015, maka ramai yang secara tiba-tiba menggunakan gelaran tersebut.

PhD atau Doktor Falsafah mengikut kamus Oxford Advanced Learner‘s Dictionary ialah ijazah tertinggi yang dianugerah oleh sesebuah universiti. Penganugerahan tersebut dibuat setelah calon berjaya membuat penyelidikan yang mencapai standard PhD dalam sesuatu bidang.

Pendek kata, ijazah PhD bukanlah suatu ijazah yang mudah diperoleh. Ia melalui satu proses pembelajaran dan penyelidikan yang tinggi mutunya sesuai dengan status ketinggian ijazah tersebut.

Kebanyakan universiti di Malaysia dan United Kingdom misalnya, tempoh minimum pengajian PhD mengambil masa tiga tahun, dan tempoh maksimum enam tahun sekiranya dibuat secara sepenuh masa. Bagi pengajian separuh masa tempoh yang diberi adalah sehingga lapan tahun bagi sesetengah universiti.

Manakala pengajian PhD secara jarak jauh banyak membawa perdebatan yang bersetuju dan ada yang menentang. Ada yang mendakwa mendapat Ijazah PhD dari sebuah universiti terkemuka di luar negara tetapi malangnya, universiti itu tidak diberi pengiktirafan Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam (JPA).

Ini kerana, peranan JPA adalah untuk menjaga ‘taraf dan mutu’ sesuatu ijazah yang dianugerahkan oleh sesebuah universiti. Maka tidak hairanlah JPA tidak mengiktiraf sesetengah ijazah walaupun di peringkat Sarjana Muda dengan alasan ia tidak mencapai mutu dan standard yang dikehendaki dalam satu-satu bidang berkenaan.

Dalam menyahut cabaran Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi yang mahukan ramai pemegang PhD di kalangan pensyarah, sudah tentulah ramai di kalangan kakitangan akademik ‘terpaksa’ menyambung pengajian mereka ke peringkat PhD. Sebagai seorang pensyarah, penulis berpendapat pensyarah yang tidak memiliki Ijazah PhD ‘belum sempurna keilmuannya’ kerana dengan melalui pengajian di peringkat tersebut, seseorang akan didedahkan method pengajian dan penyelidikan yang cukup tinggi nilai, mutu dan standardnya.

Sesebuah tesis yang dihasilkan dalam masa pengajian tiga hingga empat tahun misalnya, akan membuahkan satu teori atau penemuan baru dalam satu-satu bidang. Malah, kalau ia tidak membuahkan satu teori baru, ia tidak dianggap tesis PhD. Begitu juga, kalau ia tidak membuktikan satu hasil penyelidikan yang tidak ada tolok bandingnya.

Sesebuah tesis PhD akan melalui banyak proses – daripada cadangan (proposal) dan mempertahankan cadangan tersebut (defend proposal) di peringkat universiti yang akan dinilai oleh pakar-pakar dalam bidang tersebut, baik dari segi kandungan dan juga pendekatan methodologi.

Seseorang yang telah melalui pengalaman ini, sudah tentu merasai pahit maung dikritik dan ‘dibelasah’ dalam sesi defend proposal.

Terdapat juga pendekatan upgrading dari M. Phil ke PhD yang diamalkan terutama mereka yang membuat pengajian di United Kingdom. Bagi mereka ini, tempoh setahun hingga setahun setengah merupakan tahun getir kerana tanpa berjaya melalui upgrading ke PhD, seseorang itu dianggap gagal memperolehi ijazah PhD.

Dalam melihat keaslian dan kesahihan penyelidikan yang dibuat, kebanyakan universiti di Malaysia mahupun luar negara mensyaratkan pemeriksaan melalui viva secara oral. Ini bagi memastikan penyelidik tersebut benar-benar ‘mendalami’ hasil kajian yang dibuat dalam tesis PhDnya.

Ia juga bertujuan untuk melihat kesahihan penyelidik tersebut. Maka tohmahan bahawa sesebuah tesis PhD boleh diperolehi melalui upahan akan terjawab dalam proses viva. Ini kerana, kadang-kadang pemeriksa akan bertanya soalan-soalan sampingan yang tiada kaitan dengan kajian tesis PhD tersebut.

Dalam hal ini, penulis banyak melihat kawan-kawan yang sama-sama berjaya memperolehi PhD dan tidak ketinggalan, ramai juga yang gagal. Kalau diambil tempoh pengajian tiga hingga empat tahun untuk tamat pengajian, agak sedikit mereka yang lulus dalam tempoh ini. Ada yang mengambil sehingga 10 tahun untuk tamat pengajian.

Bagi mereka yang gagal, mungkin kerana nasib tidak menyebelahi mereka. Dalam pengamatan penulis, terdapat kawan-kawan yang rajin dan tekun serta berdisiplin semasa pengajian, tetapi nasib tidak menyebelahi mereka di mana penyelia meninggal dunia atau bertukar tempat. Maka pengajian PhD itu terbengkalai akibat keadaan itu kerana tiada pensyarah lain yang boleh menyelia tesis tersebut justeru kerana bukan bidang kepakaran atau kemahiran mereka.

Maka, persoalannya, bagaimana tergamak seseorang insan itu sanggup menggelarkan dirinya seorang ‘Dr.’ seandainya beliau tidak melalui proses ‘kepenatan’ dan ‘kesengsaraan’ mental, emosi dan fizikal dalam menyiapkan penyelidikan PhD tersebut.

Seperti yang dinukilkan oleh Prof. Dr. Kamil Ibrahim dalam bukunya PhD Kecil Tapi Signifikan, UPENA, UiTM (2005), ijazah PhD ialah suatu keperluan akademik yang sangat perlu di universiti seandainya seseorang itu mahu dianggap sebagai seorang scholar.

Beliau menambah, “PhD merupakan suatu proses unik. Ramai yang mencuba untuk mendapatkannya, tetapi ramai yang kecundang. Mereka yang berjaya pula melalui pelbagai halangan. Ada orang mengatakan ia suatu proses yang cukup perit dan meletihkan.”

Tambahan pula, “terlalu sedikit yang dapat menyiapkan pengajian mereka tepat mengikut jadual. Apatah lagi untuk mencari mereka yang tamat kurang dari tiga tahun. Ia boleh dibilang dengan jari.”

Demi menjaga mutu dan standard sesebuah ijazah PhD yang dianugerahkan oleh sesebuah universiti, sudah tentulah tesis itu akan dinilai oleh peers dalam bidang berkenaan terlebih dahulu sebelum dinilai oleh pihak pemeriksa luar.

Bagi Universiti Malaya sebagai contohnya, amalan sekarang ialah pemeriksa luar bagi tesis PhD mestilah seorang profesor yang memiliki PhD dan disyaratkan mesti dari luar negara. Sudah tentulah proses untuk mendapat ijazah PhD bukannya mudah tetapi semakin susah.

Mengambil kira faktor-faktor di atas, amat wajar saranan Adam Kadir supaya pihak JPA memainkan peranan pengiktirafan sesebuah ijazah PhD walaupun ia datang dari Barat. Ia hendaklah melalui proses pengajian PhD sebenar walaupun ia dibuat secara jarak jauh. Bagi mereka yang suka memakai gelaran ‘Dr.’ walaupun gagal kerana terkandas di tengah jalan, pertanyaan ikhlas penulis ialah, apakah mereka ini tidak merasa malu dan dipandang serong oleh kawan dan orang awam.

Sebagai contoh, memang terdapat mereka yang membuat pengajian PhD di luar negara secara jarak jauh dan tiba-tiba meletakkan nama ‘Dr.’ Apakah mereka ini memang melalui pengajian PhD dalam erti kata sebenar?

Terdapat pensyarah yang gagal memperoleh PhD setelah melalui pengajian sepenuh masa dan kemudian berusaha lagi dengan membuatnya secara jarak jauh. Namun ia tidak diiktiraf oleh universiti berkenaan, maka dengan sendirinya dia rela menerima ‘pelucutan’ penggunaan gelaran ‘Dr.’

Maka penulis mencadangkan supaya pengiktirafan penggunaan gelaran ‘Dr.’ hendaklah diperketatkan. Pihak JPA hendaklah diberi peranan dalam memberi pengiktirafan tersebut.

Bagi pensyarah di universiti, pengiktirafan ini boleh diturun kuasa oleh JPA kepada Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi yang kemudian akan memberi pengiktirafan tersebut.

Masalahnya ialah bagi mereka yang bekerja sendiri atau di sektor swasta, gelaran ‘Dr.’ juga mesti dibuat pengiktirafan oleh pihak JPA. Selagi mana pengiktirafan tersebut tidak diperoleh, seseorang individu dilarang sama sekali mengguna gelaran tersebut.

Bagi mereka yang mendapat ijazah PhD dari universiti bagus dan menggunakan gelaran tersebut tanpa pengiktirafan oleh pihak JPA, adalah dicadangkan supaya satu undang-undang mengenai salah laku penggunaan gelaran ‘Dr.’ hendaklah dibuat demi menjaga kemurnian dan kesarjanaan seseorang yang bergelar ‘Dr.’

Sumber: Dr. Mohamed Azam Mohamed Adil

Is ‘mamak’ a derogatory term?

by: Jahabar Sadiq

Image may contain: 3 people, indoor

My friend wondered aloud whether using the term mamak was derogatory. I replied that it wasn’t and the conversation went on for a bit.

But mamak is just a Malaysian term, and its a corruption of the word mama, which means uncle in Tamil. And it is specifically uncle on the maternal side.

Uncles on the paternal side are known as sacha or chacha. And for variety, depending where you are from in Tamil Nadu, mama is also pronounced and spelled mamu. Hence the Penang variant.

So how did it become a put-down or a derogatory term. From what I know, it came about from the old days of Malacca when the Bendahara Sri Maharaja Tun Mutahir or prime minister was seen as a vain pot. He was accused of plotting against the sultan and his entire family was put to death in 1510, a year before Malacca fell to the Portuguese.

And then there’s Dr Mahathir Mohamad, who is of Indian Muslim descent. A fair number of people have called him derogatory names including mamak and mamak kutty. That probably explains the reason why mamak is derogatory for some.

But Dr Mahathir isn’t mamak. His family came from Kerala and they are known as Kakas. Ignorance has resulted in more odium and contempt for the more popular Mamaks rather than the Kakas.

But you want to talk derogatory? Or dirty.

The Indians themselves, and in Malaysia that really means the southern Indians or Tamils, have also described Indian Muslims in less than friendly manner. The term they use is Thulukans, or people of Turkish descent.

There’s a long history there as Islam came by land and sea to India – that sub-continent of princeling states and people divided by language, diet, culture and united by the British (correction, India was united before that so in defence I’ll say, English language).

The Arabs always had relations with India even before Islam but a fair number of Muslims came by land from the northwest and pushed right through to the south. They were of Turkic origins. The seafaring Arabs proselytised among the coastal Indians in the east coast and somewhat in the west coast and their offsprings were just known as Arabs, not Mamak or Kaka.

But among the Indian Muslims, the term Thulukan is friendly and a sign of recognition of brotherhood and family relationships.

What term do Indian Muslims or Mamaks use to put each other down? They call each other ToppiWappa. But it is friendly, not spiteful or derogatory.

Why I’m writing this down? Because I might forget all this one day and also to underline one thing. You can call Mamaks and think it is derogatory but it is a sign of respect. And you know, the Mamaks are there 24 hours to cook delicious fare for you and your family. And there for your cigarettes, condoms and crisps.

So before you think it is bad and not politically correct, just know the Mamak doesn’t quite care. They are a courteous community focussed on family, feasts and finance.

The rest of Malaysia can’t live without them, and know them as the people you go to when in you need food, foreign exchange and friendship.

Get the picture? Oh, and maybe one day I will write about 786.

Source: Facebook Jahabar Sadiq (27th May 2017)

Prophet Muhammad PBUH is “Kalki Avatar” in Hindu Scripture

by: Ahamad Yanuana Samantho

A phamplet containing the following was distributed at a mosque in Chicago recently. Pundit Vedaprakash Upadhyai, a Hindu Professor, in his stunning book claims that the description of the ‘AVATAR”  found in the Holy Books of the Hindu religion, matches the Holy Prophet Muhammed (P.B.U.H.).

Recently in India, a fact-revealing book has been published. The book has been the topic of discussion and gossip all over the country.If the author of this were a Muslim he probably would have been arrested or murdered.

Perhaps all copies of this book would have been confiscated. Maybe, even  a ban would have been extended.  A riot and violence would have broken out against the innocent Muslims and their blood would been shed.

Amazingly the author of this book, Pundit Vedaprakash Upadhyai, is a learned and famous Hindu Professor. The book is called ‘KALKI AVATAR”.  Pundit Vedaprakash Upadhyai is a Hindu Brahmin of Bengali origin. He is a research scholar at the  Allahabad University in India.

After years of research, he published this book and no less than eight pundits have endorsed and certified his points of arguments as authentic.
According to the Hindu belief, the Hindu world awaits “the guide and leader” named “Kalki Avatar”. However, the description as given in the Holy scriptures of the Hinduspoints only to Prophet Muhammed (P.B.U.H.) of Arabia. Therefore, the Hindus of the world should not wait any longer for the arrival of “Kalki Avatar” (the spirit) and should readily accept Prophet
Muhammed (P.B.U.H.) as “Kalki Avatar”.  These are his facts verified and supported by eight other prominent pundits.

What the author says is that Hindus, who are still anxiously awaiting the arrival of Kalki Avatar are simply subjecting themselves to never ending pain. Because, such a great messenger has already arrived and departed from
this world fourteen centuries years ago. The author produces sound evidences from the Vedas and other Holy books of the Hindu religion in support of his claim:-

1. In the Puranas (Hindu Scriptures), it is stated that Kalki Avatar would be the last messenger of God in this world. He would be for the guidance of the whole world and allhuman beings;

2. According to the Hindu religion prediction the birth of Kalki Avatar would take place in an isle, which again according to Hindu religion is Arab region;

3. In the books of the Hindus, the names of the father and the mother of Kalki Avatar are given as VISHNUBHAGAT and SUMAANI respectively.  If we examine the meaning of these names we shall come to some very interesting conclusion.

VISHNU (Meaning GOD) + BHAGAT (Meaning SLAVE) = SLAVE of GOD  = ABDULLAH (In Arabic) is the name of Prophet’s Muhammed’s (P.B.U.H.) father.

SUMAANI (Meaning PEACE and CALMNESS)  =  AMEENAH (Meaning PEACE in Arabic) is the name of the Prophet Muhammed’s (P.B.U.H.) mother.

4. In the religious books of the Hindus, it is mentioned that the staple food of  Kalki Avatar would be dates and olives and he would be the most honest and trustful person in the region.  Without any doubt, Prophet Muhammed is acclaimed to possess these qualities;

5. It is stated in the Vedas (Holy Boook of the Hindu religion) that the birth of Kalki Avatar would take place in an Honourable clan.  This perfectly fits the Quraysh where Prophet Muhammed (P.B.U.H.) belonged to;

6.  God would teach Kalki Avatar through His Messenger (Angel) in a cave. Allah taught Prophet Muhammed (P.B.U.H.) through His Messenger (Angel Gabriel) in a cave known as Ghaar-e-Hira.

7.  God would provide Kalki Avatar with a very speedy horse to ride and travel the world and the seven skies.  Indication of Burraq (the horse)  and Mee’raj (the night when Prophet Muhammed(P.B. U.H.) travelled the seven skies;

8. God would provide Kalki Avatar with Divine Help. This was particularly proved in the “Battle of Uhud”.

9.  Another dazzling account given about Kalki Avatar was that he would be born on the 12th of a month. Prophet Muhammed was born on the 12th of Rabbi-Ul -Awwal  (Hijra Calendar;

10.Kalki Avatar would be an excellent horse rider and swordsman.  The author here draws the attention of the Hindus that the real days of the horses and swords have gone and the present time of guns and missiles.  So it would be foolish on the part of those who still expect Kalki Avatar, who should be an excellent rider and swordsman to come.  In fact, the Divine Book, the Holy Quran, contains qualities and signs attributed to Kalki Avatar reflecting on the Prophet Muhammed (P.B.U.H.).  The Author has given numerous arguments in favour of his claim that Kalki Avatar is in fact  Prophet Muhammed (P.B.U.H.) and those who still await the arrival of Kalki Avatar should not waste time.

Source: https://ahmadsamantho.wordpress.com (2010)

Proton-Geely Partnership

by: Md

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The recent Proton-Geely partnership has strike both positive and negative interest alike.  For the critics, the acquisition of 49% of Proton share by the Chinese automaker is akin to Malaysia selling out itself to China. Critics are also saying that Geely is only interested in acquiring Lotus and that they will not be committed towards empowering Proton. We at MDlistic however, are more optimistic about the whole venture. For one, we are delighted that Proton is still 51% owned by DRB-Hiacom, a Malaysian company and similarly delighted that Lotus was not totally given away.  And despite the present government’s distasteful relationship with Proton founder Tun Dr. Mahathir, we believe the decision to partner with Geely was not entirely political but for the better good of the company itself. This partnership is no doubt a strategic one, as the national automaker gets access to Geely’s technologies and models such as the announced Buoyue SUV platform and more importantly the prospect of tapping into the bigger Chinese market. However, what remains a concern is just how this partnership would hold true. Will Proton get its much needed financial and technological support? Will Proton cars sell well in in the future Chinese market? Can Proton regain its loss market share? Let’s hope for the best.